Chemicals can be classified into five groups:
Basic Products: These are products consumed in large quantities, with little value per unit of mass, obtained by the basic industry from natural sources. These basic products are used to produce a large number of more elaborate products.
Basic chemical products are substances considered fundamental in chemistry and industry due to their importance in obtaining other compounds or more complex chemical products. These basic chemical products often serve as essential raw materials in a variety of industrial processes. Some examples of basic chemical products include:
- Oxygen (O2): Oxygen is a gas essential for life and is used in a wide range of industrial applications, from metallurgy to energy production and healthcare.
- Nitrogen (N2): Nitrogen is an inert gas used for space inerting, such as in food preservation, and in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries.
- Hydrogen (H2): Hydrogen is used in the production of ammonia, hydrogenation of oils and fats, and as fuel in fuel cells.
- Chlorine (Cl2): Chlorine is a chemical element used in the production of chlorinated chemicals such as PVC and as a disinfectant in water treatment.
- Sodium (Na): Metallic sodium is used in organic synthesis, in the production of organic compounds such as metallic sodium and Grignard reagents.
- Potassium (K): Potassium is used in the production of fertilizers and is an essential element for plants.
- Calcium (Ca): Calcium is used in the production of construction chemicals such as cement, and in metallurgy.
- Sulfur (S): Sulfur is used in the production of sulfuric acid and in the vulcanization of rubber.
- Phosphorus (P): Phosphorus is used in the production of fertilizers, in the chemical industry, and in match manufacturing.
These basic chemical products are essential in numerous industrial processes and are generally obtained from natural sources or through specific chemical processes. They can also be used as reagents in various chemical reactions for the synthesis of more complex compounds. Their availability and production are crucial for many industries and sectors of society.
Intermediate Products: These are more elaborated compounds, intended for the production of final products.
Intermediate chemical products, often called specialty intermediate chemicals or fine intermediate chemicals, are chemical compounds used in the manufacture of more complex chemicals or final products in a variety of industries. These chemical products play a crucial role in the synthesis of final chemical products and are produced as part of intermediate chemical processes in the production chain. Some examples of intermediate chemical products include:
- Aniline: An organic compound used in the synthesis of dyes, agricultural chemicals, and pharmaceuticals.
- Toluene: An organic solvent used in the manufacture of resins, plastics, coating chemicals, and pharmaceuticals.
- Sulfuric acid: Although also used as a final chemical product, sulfuric acid is employed as a reagent in the synthesis of many other chemicals, such as fertilizers, mining chemicals, and cleaning chemicals.
- Acetyl chloride: Used in the synthesis of chemicals such as acids, esters, and amides, which are then used in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and agricultural chemicals.
- Isocyanates: These compounds are essential in the production of polyurethanes, used in the production of foams, sealants, and coatings.
- Epoxides: Epoxides are used as reagents in the manufacture of epoxy resins, used in the construction, electronics, and automotive industries.
- Methyl chloride: A reagent used in the synthesis of pharmaceutical and agrochemical chemicals.
- Nitrobenzene: An intermediate chemical product used in the synthesis of organic chemicals, such as aniline and explosives.
- Diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI): Used in the production of polyurethanes used in building insulation and the manufacture of rigid and flexible foams.
These intermediate chemical products are vital in the chemical industry and are used in numerous applications for the manufacture of a wide variety of final products, from pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals to construction chemicals, plastics, and coatings. The production and use of intermediate chemical products are essential in the supply chain of numerous industries.
Final Products: Obtained from intermediate products through the transformative chemical industry. These products have the necessary characteristics for their final use, although they are not in the appropriate presentation for consumption.
Final chemical products are chemical compounds produced for the purpose of their final use in specific applications. These chemicals are generally finished products used in a variety of industries and end applications, in contrast to intermediate chemical products, which are used in the synthesis of other chemicals or more complex compounds. Some examples of final chemical products include:
- Medicines: Final chemical products in the pharmaceutical industry are drugs used for the treatment of diseases and medical conditions.
- Plastics: Polymers and plastic resins are final chemical products used in the manufacture of a wide range of plastic products, such as packaging, automotive components, electronic products, and toys.
- Personal care chemicals: Include products such as shampoo, soaps, skin creams, perfumes, and dental care products.
- Cleaning chemicals: These products, such as detergents, disinfectants, and cleaning products, are used in the cleaning and disinfection of surfaces and spaces.
- Agrochemicals: Final chemical products in agriculture include pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers used to improve crop production and protect them from pests and diseases.
- Construction chemicals: This includes products such as cement, mortar, paints, and coatings used in construction and the construction industry.
- Food processing chemicals: Include food additives, colorants, preservatives, and flavorings used in the production and processing of food.
- Fuels: Final chemical products in the energy industry include gasoline, diesel, propane, natural gas, and other fuels used for power generation and vehicle propulsion.
- Electronic chemicals: Include semiconductor materials, chemicals for cleaning electronic components, and other compounds used in the manufacture of electronic devices and integrated circuits.
- Construction materials: Final chemical products such as bricks, concrete blocks, glass, and insulation materials are used in construction and building.
These are just some examples of final chemical products, and there is a wide variety of chemicals designed to meet specific needs in various industries and applications. The production and use of final chemical products play an important role in the global economy and in the everyday lives of people.
Consumer Products: These are packaged final products, with the necessary additives and ready to be consumed.