The conversion \(x_A\) is defined as the fraction of reactant A that is transformed into a product. We can obtain an expression for the conversion from the equation that gives the moles of unreacted reactant A:

\(N_A = N_{A0}(1-x_A) \rightarrow x_A = \frac{N_{A0}-N_A}{N_{A0}}\).

We can also express the conversion in terms of concentrations, \(c_A = c_{A0}(1-x_A)\).

 Conversion in chemical engineering is a fundamental concept in the design and operation of chemical processes. Conversion is expressed as a percentage and represents the fraction of reactants that have reacted to form products. It is calculated by comparing the amounts of reactants that have reacted to the initial amounts.

High conversion indicates that a large proportion of the reactants has been transformed into products, which can be desirable in many chemical processes to maximize efficiency and the yield of desired products. Conversion is an important parameter for evaluating and optimizing the efficiency of a chemical process.